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  • 12:58 PM, Tuesday, 21 Sep 2021

Course Undergraduate
Semester Electives
Subject Code ES488
Subject Title Climate Change


 Fundamentals of Climate & Climate Change Science:  Weather vs Climate, Environmental change concepts, Natural Climate Variations (slow and quick); Unnatural Changes (Ozone depletion and Global Warming); Over view of Climate and Twentieth Century Climate Change; Physics of the Greenhouse Effect and Global Radiation Budget; Greenhouse Effect of Trace Gases; Atmospheric Radiative Transfer - Albedo, Radiative forcing and climate Feedbacks, Aerosols, Clouds, Radiation interactions, Atmospheric Pollution and Visibility; Urban heat island effect and Urban Climate change; Hydrological cycle, Carbon cycle.
Twentieth Century Climate Changes:    Science controversies past and present, The IPCC-AR Findings and their significance; The Strengths and Weaknesses of the AR conclusions; Global Dimming and its Masking Effect on Global Warming; Global Dimming and Brightening; The Atmospheric Temperature Trend Controversy & its Significance to the Climate Change problem; The water vapor feedback Controversy and how was it settled?; Rainfall trends and AR models failure to simulate the trends; Retreat of Glaciers - why are these so important, the melting Himalaya glaciers controversy; How unusual is the observed warming compared with past climates; Extreme weather events.

Impact: Potential impact on agriculture, coral reefs, health and on policy; Disaster Management and Technology, Extreme weather events, adaptability; Economics of climate change; Emission Trading; Monitoring and assessment of emissions; Requirements for planning India’s national climate change policies

What can we do about Climate Change?: Past and future Policies and Protocols, Need for gloal cooperation; IPCC and UNFCC; Energy consumption & Limitations of “renewable energy”; Stabilization Wedges for CO2; Geo-Engineering and problems with “geo-engineering”; Moral and Ethical Dilemmas.

Text Books


Same as Reference


 Frontiers of Climate Modeling, 2006; J.T. Kiehl and V. Ramanathan, Cambridge University press.
Global Physical Climatology, 1994. D. L. Hartmann
An Introduction to Solar radiation, Muhammad Iqbal, 1983.
An Introduction to atmospheric radiation, K.N. Liou.
IPCC-AR4 report