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  • 2:27 PM, Sunday, 27 Sep 2020


Course Postgraduate
Semester Electives
Subject Code ESE664
Subject Title Aerosol

Syllabus

Tropospheric Aerosols: Aerosols, Historical understanding of tropospheric aerosols, Contemporary understanding of tropospheric aerosols; Particle Sources and Strengths - widespread surface sources (Biogenic sources, Volcanoes, Ocean and fresh water, Crustal and Cryospheric Aerosols, Biomass burning); Spatial Sources - Gas to particle conversion (Sulfur & Nitrogern - Containing compounds, Organic and Carbonaceous Particles), Cloud as a Source of Aerosols, External Sources; Particle Size Distribution and Chemical Compositions (Polar aerosols, Background aerosols, Maritime aerosols, Remote continental aerosols, Desert dust storm aerosols, Rural aerosols, Urban aerosols); Transport, Geographical Distribution, Residence Time and influence of Clouds, Aerosol Optical Depth; Cloud Optical depth and Effective Particle Radius.

Cloud Physics: Types of clouds, Cloud microphysical processes, growth of cloud droplets, condensation, collision and coalescence, Bergeron-Findeisen theory, rain formation, cold and warm clouds, artificial rainmaking.

Aerosol-Cloud Interaction: Effects of Aerosols on Clouds: Cloud Condensation Nuclei, Cloud Droplet Spectra, and Precipitation (Heterogeneous Nucleation of water vapour condensation, Cloud Condensation Nuclei, Development of Cloud Droplet Spectra, Effect of Aerosol on Development of Precipitation, Stability of CCN population); Aerosol Effects on Cloud Radiative Properties (Effect of Aerosol on Cloud Optical Thickness and Albedo, Effects of Fossil Fuel and Biomass Burning, Ship tracks in Clouds, DMS-Cloud-Climate Hypothesis, Aerosol Effects on Ice in Clouds- Ice Nuclei). Effects of Clouds on Aerosols: Scavenging of Aerosol by Clouds (In-cloud Nucleation Scavenging, Below-Cloud Removal of Aerosol by Precipitation); Chemical Reaction in Clouds and their effects on Aerosol; Acidification of Cloud water and Precipitation; Nucleation of Aerosol in and near Clouds.

Aerosol-Cloud-Climate interaction: direct and indirect radiative forcing; Radiative effects of Clouds on Earth’s Climate: Cloud radiative forcing, Radiation budget and Cloud Climatologies, Effects of Clouds on Surface and Atmospheric Energy Budgets.

Text Books

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References

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