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  • 1:08 PM, Tuesday, 21 Sep 2021

Course Undergraduate
Semester Sem. V
Subject Code ES311
Subject Title Atmospheric and Ocean Sciences


Atmospheric Thermodynamics – Gas laws, Virtual temperature, Hydrostatic balance, Geopotential, Scale Height, Hypsometric Equation, First Law of Thermodynamics- Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate, Potential Temperature, Water vapor in air, Saturated Adiabatic Lapse Rate, Static Stability, Second Law of Thermodynamics, Heat Balance of earth Atmosphere system.

Atmospheric Dynamics – Coriolis Force, Pressure gradient force, Friction, Equations of motion in the atmosphere; Equation of Continuity, Hydrostatic balance; Geostrophic Wind, Gradient Wind, Thermal Wind, Isobaric coordinate system.

General circulation of the atmosphere: Hadley, Ferrel and Polar Cells; Inter Tropical Convergent Zone and its annual migration; Monsoons.

Fronts, Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Lows, Depressions and Tropical Cyclones.

Oceans – General Introduction, dimensions of the oceans, geographical features, physical properties of sea water, density of sea water, distribution of temperature, salinity and density in space and time.  Heat budget of the oceans, Bowen ratio, sea level variation, acoustical and optical properties of sea water, Formation and classification of water masses, T-S diagram, Water masses of the ocean with special reference to Indian Ocean.

Circulation, Currents in the Ocean, upwelling and sinking with special reference to the Indian Ocean.

General aspects of ocean waves, their generation and propagation, storm surges and tsunamis; Tides and tide generating forces.

Text Books

1.    J. M. Wallace and P.V. Hobbs, Atmospheric Science – An Introductory Survey, International Geophysical Series, 2006.
2.    Introduction to Dynamic Meteorology, J.  R.  Holton, Academic Books
3.    Dynamic and Physical Meteorology, S.  L.  Haltiner and F.  L.  Martin
4.    R H. Stewart, Introduction to Physical Oceanography.