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Course Postgraduate
Semester Electives
Subject Code CHM861
Subject Title Biomaterials


Introduction to classes of materials used in medical applications-Testing of biomaterials- Toxicology-Polymeric drug delivery systems - Metals and ceramics-Dental materials-Smart biomaterials- Nanobiomaterials - Nanogels and microgels- Tissue engineering.


Detailed syllabus


Biomaterials: Introduction to classes of materials used in medical applications: Metals, polymers, ceramics, bioresorbable and biodegradable materials, coatings, medical fibers, non fouling surfaces.

Testing of biomaterials: In Vitro and in vivo assessment of tissue compatibility. Testing of blood-materials interactions. ISO standards for testing of blood compatibility and tissue compatibility. Degradation of materials in the biological environment: Effects of the Biological environment on metals, polymers and ceramics. Relevant international standards: ISO, FDA and ASTM

Toxicology: cytotoxicity, systemic effects, genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, reproductive toxicity, sensitization & irritation, tissue comptability and inflammatory response, evaluation of host response.

Metals and ceramics: stainless steels, cobalt based alloys, titanium based alloys, characteristics and processing of bioceramics, nearly inert crystalline ceramics, porous ceramics, bioactive glasses and glass ceramics, calcium phosphate ceramics, calcium phosphate coatings, resorbable calcium phosphates, clinical applications of hydroxyapatite. Pyrolytic carbon.

Dental materials: Introduction to dental materials polymers, ceramics and metals, applications of dental materials, physico-chemical, mechanical, toxicological and in vitro clinical performance of dental materials and implants.

Polymers in drug delivery : Introduction to polymeric drug delivery systems, Targeted drug delivery. Passive or active targeting, targeting tumor cells, polymer-protein conjugates, polymer drug-conjugates. Pharmacokinetics. Application of hydrogels in controlled drug delivery systems.

Smart biomaterials: Stimuli responsive polymers (pH, temperature, light, magnetic and biomolecules) and their applications as biomaterials. Stimuli responsive hydrogels.

Nanobiomaterials: Interaction of bio-molecules and nano particle surfaces. Biocompatible nanomaterials, Nanogels and microgels: preparation methods, characterization and applications.

Tissue engineering :Introduction to the basic concepts of scaffolds in tissue engineering.  Functions and requirements of scaffolds in tissue engineering.

Natural and synthetic materials for tissue engineering scaffolds. Application of  hydrogels in tissue engineering.  Processing techniques for scaffold preparation such as solvent casting and particulate leaching, freeze drying, phase separation, gas foaming, solid freeform fabrication, self-assembled materials-3D bioprinting.

Text Books
  1. B. Ratner, A. Hoffman, F. Schoen, J Lemons, Biomaterials Science: An introduction to materials in Medicine. 2nd edition, Academic Press, 2004.
  2. S. Dumitriu, 2nd edition, Polymeric Biomaterials. Marcel Dekker, 2002
  3. C. T. Laurencin, L. S. Nair, Nanotechnology and Tissue Engineering, The Scaffol, CRC Press, 2008
  4. S. Ramakrishna, T. S. Sampath Kumar, Biomaterials: A nano approach.CRC press, 2010
  5. I. Galaev, Bo Mattiasson, Smart Polymers: Applications in Biotechnology and Biomedicine, 2ndEdition, CRC Press,2007
  6. S. Li, A. Tiwari, M. Prabaharan and S. Aryal, Smart Polymer Materials for Biomedical Applications (Materials Science and Technologies), Nova Science Publishers Inc, 2010
  7. M. De Villiers, P Aramwit and G S. Kwon, Nanotechnology in drug delivery. Springer, 2009.
  8. A. Kirkland and J.  Hutchison, Nano characterization,  RSC publishers, 2007.