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  • 6:14 PM, Monday, 18 Oct 2021

Course Postgraduate
Semester Electives
Subject Code ESE670
Subject Title General Circulation and Monsoon


Unit I:

Global Circulation: Differential Heating - Latitude variation of radiation balance - Meridional Temperature Gradient; Meridional Heat transport through atmosphere and ocean; Thermal Wind; Jet Stream - Baroclinicity, Angular momentum; Vorticity - Relative Vorticity, Absolute Vorticity, Potential Vorticity, Isentropic Potential Vorticity; Instability - Barotropic Instability & Rossby Waves, Baroclinic Instability & Planetary Waves; Global Winds -General Circulation of the Atmosphere, Single-cell Model, Three-Cell Model, ITCZ; Westerly Winds and the Jet Streams, Brewer Dobson circulation, Quasi-Biennial Oscillations.

Air masses and fronts: Air mass production – Classification – Sources of air masses in winter and summer and their modification. Fronts and frontal surfaces – Principal frontal zones –frontogenesis and frontolysis. Extra-tropical cyclones- formation – Life cycle – Structure and movement. Anticyclones and blocking. Heat and cold waves.

Unit II:

Monsoons (Indian, Australian, African, American): Global perspective of monsoon, CTCZ, ITCZ over Indian ocean – structure and movement, 5-7 day, 30-50 day oscillations (MJO),10-20 day oscillations.

Monsoon rain bearing systems: Monsoon trough/ CTCZ, Depressions, onset vortex,Mechanism of formation, structure and dynamics, monsoon Mesoscale process, seasonal prediction and predictability of monsoon, coupled monsoon system, the role ocean in the life cycle of Indian monsoon system

Monsoon variability: Interannual variability and decadal variability, Teleconnections of India summer monsoon with southern oscillation, El-Nino, La Nina, Indian Ocean dipole mode, NAO, Reversal of monsoon system, winter monsoon.

Tropical Cyclones (Genesis, Intensification, Evolution, Dissipation, Structure, Motion, and forecasts), Thunder storms (CAPE and CINE, Favorable conditions for severe thunderstorms, influence of vertical wind shear, stability indices, Life cycle and structure of Thunderstorm).

Text Books