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  • 2:46 PM, Sunday, 24 Oct 2021

Course Dual Degree (B. Tech + Master of Science / Master of Technology)
Semester Electives
Subject Code ESE472
Subject Title Atmospheric and Oceanic Instrumentation and Measurement Techniques


Instruments and Measurement Systems: Instrument Response, Measurement Quality, Signal to Noise ratio, Measurement Artifacts, Instrument Response Time, Instrumental Time Resolution, Detection Limit and Sensivity, Sources of Uncertainties, Calibration procedures. Basic statistics, concept of error and uncertainty analysis, Error analysis, probability distribution functions, regression analysis, least square fit, goodness of fit, uncertainties in the fit, propagation of error for a simple linear system. Measurement of meteorological variables: wind, pressure, temperature, humidity, dew point temperature and rain fall, Snow and Rain Sampling Techniques. Radar Principles, Radar equation, Various types of Radar, Estimation of rainfall from weather radar measurements

Lidars: Basic lidar principles, Various types of Lidar, Lidar probing of aerosols and clouds, Principles of Microwave Radiometers for atmospheric probing of temperature and water vapour.

Principles of Visible, IR and Microwave Remote Sensing techniques, satellite orbits and their characteristics, Spectral bands used in satellite remote sensing for aerosols, clouds and water vapour, Satellite observation geometries, determination of solar and satellite zenith angles and relative azimuth, Spectral variation of surface reflectance for different surface types and vegetation, Basic concepts of satellite remote sensing: Instantaneous field of view, pixel resolution, swath, panoramic corrections, ground track, revisit period, orbital precession, Basics of satellite data structure and formats, Levels of data processing, Basic principles for retrieval of geophysical parameters from satellite observations in different spectral bands: estimation of surface reflectance, brightness temperature, detection of clouds, estimation of aerosol optical depth, estimation of cloud top temperature, Principle of GPS technique for measurement of water vapour.

Aerosols: Measurement of aerosol optical properties: aerosol optical depth, scattering coefficient, absorption coefficient, angular scattering measurements, Measurement of aerosol physical and chemical properties: aerosol sampling, Sampling Inlet types and Sampling Efficiency, Sampling and Measurement using Inertial, Gravitational, Centrifugal, and Thermal Techniques, Thermal and Optical Transmittance (TOT) Techniques, Incandescence Methods, Methods for Chemical Analysis of Atmospheric Aerosols, Principles of Ion Chromatography, Mass Spectrometry, Optical and Electrical Mobility Methods for Particle Characterization, Principles of Airborne sampling of Aerosols.

Trace Gases: Chemiluminescence, Photochemical reaction, Chemical Conversion Techniques, Spectroscopic techniques, Satellite Instrumentation for Monitoring Trace Gases.

Clouds: Optical Techniques for the Measurement of Cloud Water Content, Cloud Probes and Imager, Cloud Particle Sampling, Cloud Particle Spectrometer with Depolarization,

Radiation: Measurement of solar radiation, radiance and irradiance, spectral radiance, measurement of shortwave and longwave fluxes, Meaurement of global and diffuse radiative fluxes, principle for converion of satellite measured radiances to fluxes using ADMs.

Oceanic Research Vessels, Expendable Bathythermograph (XBT), Optical and Infrared Imaging and altimeter system, Interferometry Techniques, CTD sonde, Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP), Moored and Drifting Buoys and Satellite Instrumentation.

Text Books